Global Civil Society 地球市民社会論

Course Description

Examines the theoretical and practical challenges NGOs and other stakeholders encounter in an emerging global civil society. Language of instruction differs by year.


Lecture 2

Theories and Issues I

1. This class will provide an historical overview of the development of the relationship of state, society and the economy from the 17th century until today.

2. In this session, students will also get together to discuss possible topics for their own INGO. Students have to consider their main goal, initial activities, and eventually what kind of organization to set up, how to raise funds, hoe to attract members and supporters, how to raise media attention, and so on.

Lecture will cover among others the following points:

I. From civil society to global civil society:

17/18th century

Hobbes: State of Nature, Violence, and Contract

Locke: State of Nature, Cooperation, and Contract

19th century:


Civil society = “the achievement of the modern world ‐ the territory of mediation where there is free play for every idiosyncrasy, every talent, every accident of birth and fortune and where waves of passion gust forth, regulated only by reason glinting through them” (Comaroff and Comaroff, 1999: 3)

Marx: civil society = Political rights/representation (for more social groups)

20th century:

civil society = “realm of culture, ideology, and political debate” (Antonio Gramsci)

Gramsci: to get control, parties need to “challenge the hegemony of the bourgeoisie” by infiltrating civil society.

Workers rights, social and economic emancipation

Until the 1960s:

All definition use civil society as a reaction to the state

They eventually target the state (power, coercion, etc.)

Historical Development in the 20th Century:


Japan: Non‐militarist movement (peace movement)

USA: Anti‐Communist Movements


Liberation Movements in Latin America

Used civil society as useful concept


New Social Movement

Environmental Movements

Peace Movement

“Third world” movements


Anti system movements in Eastern Europe

use of civil society concept democratization, human rights, civil liberties, etc.

Western Europe/USA:

Establishment of alternative political parties

Establishment of other social movement

Building if infrastructure (mirror offices: NGO‐Ministry)


Global Civil Society

UN Conference on Environment in Rio de Janeiro

II: Types of organizations

Today, we have different types of civil society actors, which perform different roles and use different means to influence society and state:

Think tanks

Advocacy groups and organization

Self‐help group

Volunteer groups



Interest groups


John Keane, Global Civil Society?, in: Anheier, Helmut,K., Marlies Glasius, Mary Kaldor. 2001. Global civil society 2001. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 2, pp. 23-50.

Mary Kaldor, The idea of global civil society, in: Chandler, David G.,and Gideon Baker. 2005. Global civil society: Contested futures. London: Routledge, Chapter 6, pp. 103-113.

Mary Kaldor, Five Meanings of Global Civil Society, in: Kaldor, Mary. 2003. Global civil society: An answer to war. Cambridge, UK : Malden, MA : Polity Press ; Blackwell Pub., Chapter 1, pp. 1-14.

Michael Walzer, The Concept of Civil Society, in Walzer, Michael. 1995. Toward a global civil society. Providence: Berghahn Books, Chapter 1, pp. 7-28

Instructor: VOSSE‚ Wilhelm M. | Language of Instruction: J

Major: Global Studies グローバル研究 | Course ID: GLS201 | Course Schedule: 2/M, 2/W, 2/F | Update: 2013.04.01 Category: Major Courses